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Specific information on diseases and illnesses will be found in the Disease section of this website. For all other medical information, see the Medical pages.
Rough hair coat
Pasty or watery feces
Pale membranes in inner eyelid (indicates anemia)
Bottle jaw: swelling under the jaw :
See a photo of bottle jaw at http://www.flickr.com/photos/baalands/390806685/.
for photos comparing the eyes, mouth and backside of a goat with a
heavy parasite load to the eyes, mouth and backside of a normal
Classes of Dewormers
"Rates [for goats] are two times the cow dosage per unit of body weight for all products except Lavisol at 1.5 times the cow rate." Gastro-Intestinal Parasite Survival Kit For Goats (2004) www.uky.edu/ag/animalsciences/goats/presentation/parasitekit0104.pdf
-Anti-parasitic drugs should always be administered to sheep and goats orally (by mouth), even if a pour-on or injectable product is used. (Schoenian, Meat Goat) also ( Gastro-Intestinal Parasite Survival Kit For Goats (2004) www.uky.edu/ag/animalsciences/goats/presentation/parasitekit0104.pdf)
-Resistance to all dewormers is increasing. We will have to learn to control parasites without them in the near future.
Smart drenching is a method that allows producers to balance production needs with the need to preserve and prolong the effectiveness of the dewormers as long as possible. Procedure for smart drenching:
The Bliss method has 2 types of treatments depending whether the goats have access to grass or not.
Where goats have access to grass.
Note:This includes goats that are on an uncemented lot or pasture, or where they are on a cemented lot, but there are cracks in the cement with grass in them, or where the goats can reach grass under the lot fence. In other words, anywhere where there is a blade of grass available:
Deworm May 1, June 1, and July 1 with Safeguard (block, loose mineral, paste or suspension. Goats won’t eat Safeguard crumbles.)
If you use Safeguard in a block form you should allow 3-10 days for treatment, depending on how many animals are sharing the block. If you have a lot of animals you have to let them have access to the block longer to make sure they all have licked it adequately, otherwise the bullies get treated and the shy goats don't. After the first 3-10 treatment days are over, remove the block. Then 3 weeks later put it out again. Let them eat on it 3-10 days, and then remove it again. Wait three weeks and put it out again, but this time just leave the blocks out and let the goats eat it all down. This three-month pattern treatment should take care of parasites for the entire year.
If you use Safeguard in a loose mineral form and you top-dress it, you should allow 3-6 days for treatment. The advantage here is that you know when they get it, so you can be sure they receive the full dose.
If your Safeguard mineral is offered in the pens free choice, then you have leave it in the pen 6-10 days because it takes 3 days just to make sure everybody gets some. You don't want to withdraw it before the last goat gets full treatment.
If you use the stronger 1.6% Safeguard pellets, cubes or crumbles, that is a one-day treatment, but it is very expensive. Safeguard 0.5% is the most cost-effective way to treat your herd.
There is a "4 dose" paste tube with a dial to set the dose, or you could use the oral suspension with the gun applicator instead of the paste. The suspension comes in 250 ml bottles.
Use the same pattern of treatment no matter what form of Safeguard you use. Treat one week, wait three weeks and repeat that two- step cycle for a total of three treatment periods.
Where goats have no access to grass at all.
Treat them once a year in December. If you see worms at other times, test and treat as needed. Remember, this applies only for goats that have NO contact with grass at all, even grass that is sticking up in cracks in the cement. ANY contact with grass requires the first treatment above.
(Parasite reduction program from Donald Bliss, MidAmerica Agricultural Research, 3705 Sequoia Trail, Verona, WI 53593 (608) 798-4901 (See expended version at “Seminar Notes”-Parasites, on this website.)
Quarantine new stock, deworm them, do a fecal egg count and threat until the egg count is reduced by 95%.
Keep worm eggs off pastures. Deworm before going on pasture and every 3rd week, 3 consecutive times.
Deworm prior to breeding, deworm 2 weeks before or within 1 week after kidding.
Do not deworm the entire herd. Deworm only those animals having high egg counts of 100 or more eggs/gram of feces using the direct count method with a microscope. Or use the FAMACHA chart and treat only those animals with pale pink to gray membranes of the lower eyelids. Dry lot the goats for 48 hours during deworming. Fast the goats the first 12-24 hours, then deworm and hold on dry lot at least 8-12 hours. Clean the lot and if it is cement, disinfect it with Nolvasan (available from Fleet Farm.).
When you have rain and then drought, deworm the goats 3 weeks later.
Rotate pastures for parasite avoidance. Subdivide large pastures into small fields with movable fencing and graze goats for 7-14 days. Then move forward to a new area and do not re-graze for at least 90 days, unless you mow it off. In that case you can re-graze when the grass has grown back. Do not graze plants close to the ground. Move the animals when the plant height gets low. You can make use of pasture and still avoid parasites by grazing April 15-July 1 on perennial pastures. Then move to browse areas or graze only upright warm season grasses 60-90 days, starting July 1st. Or move them to summer annuals such as sorghum sudan grass, soybeans, or millet for 60-90 days. You can bring goats back to the perennial cool season pasture from October to end of grazing season. Watch for resistance. If fecal tests don’t show 95% reduction rate, you have resistance to the dewormer. Use twice the cow dosage/unit of body weight for goats on all products except Lavisol. For Lavisol use 1.5 times the cow dose. Administer dewormers by mouth only. Treat based on the heaviest animal in the group. (Hutchins)
Move goats to a new area 24 hours after treatment. (Coffey, G, 13)
Rotational grazing is one of the most successful parasite controls. (ADGA)
Newly weaned kids should go on pasture that has not been used for 1 year, or that has been hayed since last use, or where pasture has been alternated with row crops since their last use. (Coffey, G, 13)
Cull those goats that suffer most from parasites, to increase herd resistance. (Coffey, G, 12)
Keep low stock density. Never let goats overgraze an area. Rotate pastures. Never let goats eat below a 4”grass height. (Coffey, G, 5 and 11)
Do a fecal exam before treatment and then again 7-10 days after treatment. There should be a 95% reduction in egg count. If not, there is resistance to the dewormer. Change de-wormers and try again. Reduce spring pasture contamination by deworming mid-winter. Rest pasture between grazings. Land that has been hayed off or cultivated should be parasite free. Keep records. Select goats that don’t have a high parasite load when breeding. Don’t breed goats that have continuously high parasite loads. The following anthelmintics are approved for goats: Ivermectin, Levamisole, Thiabendazole. All others are extra-label used and require veterinary oversight. Decide on dose for whole herd by using your heaviest animal’s weight, NOT herd average weight. After dosing, wait 48 hours before turning out into new pasture. Clean area and disinfect. (Craddock)
Ostertagia and Haemonchus Contortus. Ostertagia is a cool season parasite and is stimulated to produce eggs when temperatures reach 40 degrees Fahrenheit. They can survive 30-90 days even in in hot, dry condition and can over-winter (especially in the southern U.S.) to hit in the spring. The 4th stage larva ingested in early spring/summer will produce an infection in the fall if not stopped. Haemonchus is a warm season parasite and is stimulated by temperatures above 51 degrees. They prefer temperatures of 86-95 degrees F. so they will proliferate in the heat of summer. They over-winter within the animal. Haemonchus can produce more than 5000 eggs/female/day. It can deplete as much as 1/10th of the total blood volume of an infected goat each day. (Hutchins)
greening of grass, temperature moderation, rain following drought, estrogen at kidding.
A very cost effective way to handle parasites is to use a FAMACHA chart every 2-3 weeks, comparing it to the color of the inner, lower lid of the eye, to determine whether you need to treat an individual goat for Haemonchus Contortus (barberpole worm.). (Coffey, G, 12)
You can get a test kit by having your vet order it for you at (865) 974-5701 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. He also has to teach you how to use it. The basic cost is $13, but will be lowered for bulk orders. (2008 prices)
FAMACHA measure levels of anemia or blood loss due to parasites.
In most herds, a relatively small proportion (20-30%) of goats carry most of the worm load and shed most of the eggs. Identifying those goats will enable producers to cull them from the herd, so that the lack of resistance is not passed on to the next generation. It will also identify those who are resistant to parasites so they can be bred in order to strengthen the herd resistance.
With FAMACHA, goats with parasites will be identified and
can be treated. Those not needing
treatment will not be subjected to unnecessary deworming. This will not only slow the development of
dewormer resistance, but will also save the producers money.
The following illustration gives you some idea what the chart looks like. The chart in this picture is deliberately not true to color, so do not use it for testing. You must buy the chart. The chart is about the size of a credit card and is covered in plastic, making it easy to carry in your pocket. It is a very cost-effective way to determine the parasite load a goat is carrying.
1 2 3 4 5
You hold the eye of your goat open, and compare it to the card in order to determine the famacha score.
Using the chart:
Compare the inner eyelid color to the color on the chart. Pale membranes indicate a high worm load (anemia due to blood loss).
1 doesn’t need treatment
2 doesn’t need treatment
3 needs treatment only if body condition is not good or if goat seems sluggish
4 needs treatment...dangerous worm load
5 needs treatment...in danger of dying
See our Chart for recording FAMACHA score, weight and body condition scores.
Alternative parasite treatments http://www.sheepandgoat.com/news/feb2005.html#UMES
Diagnosing Internal Parasites in Goats: (doing fecal egg counts): http://www.luresext.edu/goats/library/fec.html
Drugs (anthelmintics) Used To Control Internal parasites In Livestock http://www.sheepandgoat.com/articles/AnthelTable.html,
(includes trade name, drug ingredient, drug family, approved species, specificity, labeled dosage, withdrawal time.)
FAMACHA on-farm parasite (internal parasite) score card http://www.scsrpc.org/SCSRPC/FAMACHA/famachainfoguide.htm
Gastro-Intestinal Parasite Survival Kit For Goats (2004) www.uky.edu/ag/animalsciences/goats/presentation/parasitekit0104.pdf
Internal & External Parasites of Goats http://www.luresext.edu/goats/training/parasites.html
Life Cycles of Parasites That Affect Goats http://www.goatbiology.com/animations/parasites.html
Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats http://www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/AS/AS-573-W.pdf
Medical diagrams, videos on parasites (for purchase, reasonably priced) http://www.imagecyte.com/goats.html
Monitoring Internal Parasite Infection In Small Ruminants (fecal egg count instructions, no photos)
New method of testing sheep for parasites: Urine dipstick, looking for blood in the stool http://www.sheepandgoat.com/news/April2006.html#dipstick (You collect fresh dung and mixing it in water for about 3 minutes. Then you dip a test strip into the final mix and read its color after 60 seconds. If there is blood on the test, you treat for parasites.) (CSIRO Australia) (will this work for goats as well?)
Parasite chart http://sheepandgoat.com/articles/sheepgoatparasites.doc
Parasite Dewormer chart. Dose given by weight of goat. http://www.uky.edu/Ag/AnimalSciences/goats/presentations/parasitedewormerchart0104.pdf
Parasites, #1 Problem in Kentucky. Power point presentation on parasite control and grazing.
Reducing parasites on pasture with lespedeza grass http://www.sheepandgoat.com/news/Dec2003.html#worms
See http://www.goatsuppliesandservices.com/fecals about how to do your own goats fecal exams
Dewormers often come in a paste form, and are packaged in tubes, with a tip for insertion in the animal’s mouth. As the handle is squeezed, the plunger forces out a pre-calibrated amount of paste. Have a helper hold the tube for you until you are ready for it.
1. Back the goat into the corner and crowd its left side against a wall. Encircle its upper neck with your left arm. Have your helper hand you the tube into your right hand.
2. Insert the thumb of your left hand into the goat’s mouth, and with a combination of prying and pushing, open it’s mouth wide enough to allow you to insert the neck of the paste tube with your right hand. Be very careful not to get your fingers between the grinding teeth or you will be bit.
3. Insert the neck of the tube into the corner of the goat’s mouth.. At the same time, lift the goat’s head so that the goat is looking up at a 45 degree angle.
4. Squeeze the handle, and allow the paste to move into the goat’s mouth.
5. Remove the tube. Hold the goat’s mouth closed, keeping the jaw elevated to 45 degrees and stroke the neck from jaw to top of chest. This will encourage the goat to swallow the paste. Watch her to make sure she has swallowed it. She may try to spit it out. If so, repeat procedure. (Batagglia, p. 447)
Weeds poisonous to livestock in Wisconsin http://ipcm.wisc.edu/uw_weeds/extension/articles/poisonpasture.htm
Poisonous Plants Home Page (Cornell University) http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/index.html
Poisonous plant guide http://www.goatworld.com/health/plants/about.shtml (see yellow bar at top right for "poisonous plant reference guide)
Common Plants Poisonous To Livestock in Maryland http://www.sheepandgoat.com/poison.html
Any goat entering your farm, whether from purchase of new stock, or returning stock from fairs or shows, should be quarantined away from other animals for 2 wks to 30 days. New stock should be given a coccidostat, 7 way or CD&T vaccine and be tested for parasites, be dewormed and retested and found 95% reduction in parasites prior to being admitted to the rest of the herd. They also should be checked for foot rot and treated if needed.
LinksBiosecurity for Meat Goat Producers http://www.luresext.edu/goats/training/biosecurity.html
The following suspected diseases must be reported to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection's Animal Health Division, or to the state office of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Veterinary Services within one day after finding evidence:
The following suspected diseases must be reported to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection's Animal Health Division, or to the state office of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Veterinary Services within ten days after finding evidence:
For information on reportable diseases see: http://datcp.wi.gov/Animals/Animal_Diseases/Reporting_Disease/index.aspx
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